Direct and indirect speech or narrations are related to reporting, and reporting means whenever you are delivering or narrating the speech of any person to others. There are two ways to report anything;
You narrate the same speech
of a person to others.
You change the speech and narrate it in indirect manner.
Now the first sentence above is the example of direct speech or direct narration because narrator has delivered the same speech and that is why the speech is in quotation marks because they are not narrator’s words. In the second sentence you see the narrator has changed the speech and delivered it in indirect manner hence it is indirect speech or indirect narration. Now look at some more examples below.
Reporting and Reported Speech
In above examples you have seen that narrations have two clauses in a sentence; one is in quotation marks and the other is not. Narrations is an example of complex sentences in which one is dependent clause (reporting speech) and another is independent clause (reported speech). The quoted part is not the speaker’s words rather it is reported portion that is why it is called reported speech, whereas the clause which is out of quotation marks is called as reporting speech. Like; he says, he said, she said etc. Reporting speech usually is at the start of the sentence but it can be at the end. Reported speech can also be split. See the examples.
“I am busy” he said. (direct speech with reporting
speech at the end)
My mother said to me, “Where are you going?”
(direct speech with reporting
“I am working hard” she said to her friend,
“to have good score this time.” (direct speech
with split reported speech)
Some other examples of split reported speech
“It is very hard”, he said, “to keep
walking uphill.” (direct speech)
“I am” she said angrily, “not going
to the party.”
“They are” said he proudly, “playing
excellent that no one can defeat them.”
Note: The method to convert any sentence into indirect speech is the same. It doesn’t matter whether reported speech comes at the start of the sentence, at the end of the sentence or it is split into two parts.
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